The son and heir of William Randolph of Little Houghton, Northamptonshire, Thomas Randolph attended Westminster School. He began writing plays at Trinity College Cambridge (B.A. 1628, Fellow 1629, M.A. 1632; incorporated at Oxford in 1631). Randolph's Latin and English verse was much admired at Cambridge; afterwards he settled in London where he led a dissipated life as one of the "Sons of Ben." Among his friends were Owen Felltham, Sir Aston Cokayne, and Sir Kenelm Digby. Randolph's poems were published in 1638, sometimes bound with Milton's Comus.
1631 ca.An Eglogue occasion'd by two Doctors disputing upon Predestination.
1631 ca.An Eglogue to Mr. Johnson.
1635 ca.An Eclogue on the Palilia and noble Assemblies revived on Cotswold Hills, by Mr. Robert Drover.
Aristippus: or the joviall philosopher. 1630.
The jealous lovers: a comedie. 1632.
Cornelianum dolium. Comoedia epidissima [by Randolph?]. 1638.
Poems, with the Muses looking-glasse and Amyntas. 1638.
The Muse's looking-glasse. 1643.
A pleasant comedie, called hey for honesty, down with knavery. 1651.
The fickle shepherdess [from Amyntas]. 1703.
Poems and dramatic works, ed. W. C. Hazlitt. 2 vols, 1875.
Poems and Amyntas, ed. J. J. Parry. 1917.
Poems, ed. G. Thorn-Drury. 1929.
The drinking academy, ed. S. A. Tannenbaum and H. E. Rollins. 1930.
The faery knight or Oberon the second, ed. F. T. Bowers. 1942.